Protesters had been trying to block the forced removal of those living in a makeshift camp in Flinders Street, which came under attack during the Australian Open.
The Melbourne City Council gave those living in the camp 24 hours to leave on Monday, warning they could face arrest if they did not comply.
However, after attempts to move the group on peacefully, police moved in on Wednesday afternoon to physically remove them.
Four of those arrested were protesters, not rough sleepers, police say. The homeless person who was arrested will be charged with public drunkenness. A female protester was arrested for assaulting a police officer after she allegedly punched a male officer in the back of the head.
Another three protesters were arrested for a range of offences including assaulting a police officer, throwing objects at officers, resisting police and one other for public drunkenness.
Three officers were injured but only suffered minor cuts and bruises.
One female protestor was carried away after placing a tarp in the middle of the street and laying down on top of it.